Cell-to-Module Yield CTMY

Cell-to-Module Yield

Solar cells and solar modules are usually optimized independently under standard test conditions (STC). The performance of solar modules under outdoor conditions, however, depend on module design and environmental conditions.

We have developed a holistic approach to predict the annual yield of solar modules for varying module configurations and environments and quantify 12 effects that affect the annual module performance, starting with solar cells in air under STC to a complete module under realistic conditions. We consider the interaction of optical, thermal and electrical effects in the module and combine it with an angular, spectral and time resolved light source.

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This work has recently been published in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells and in following publications listed below:

Reference DOI / Download
M. Ernst, I. Haedrich, Y. Li, P.-C. Hsiao, A. Lennon, "Impact of (Multi) Busbar Design in Full and Halved Cell Modules on the Cell-to-Module-Yield under Realistic Conditions," presented at the 29th International Conference on Photovoltaic Science and Engineering (PVSEC-29), 10MoO1-8, Best Paper Award. Download presentation
I. Haedrich, D. Jordan, M. Ernst, "Methodology to predict annual yield losses and gains caused by solar module design and materials under field exposure," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 202, 110069 (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2019.110069
M. Ernst, J. Gooday, "Methodology for Generating High Time Resolution Typical Meteorological Year Data for Accurate Photovoltaic Energy Yield Modelling," Solar Energy 189, 299–306 (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2019.07.069
M. Ernst, H. Holst, M. Winter, and P. P. Altermatt, “SUNCALCULATOR: A program to calculate the angular and spectral distribution of direct and diffuse solar radiation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 157, 913–922 (2016) https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2016.08.008.

Mon Nov 18, 2019

Cell-to-Module Yield CTMY Illustration of the simulation model showing input/outputs and flow. Illustration of a CTMY graph showing the loss and gain mechanism from a cell in air (E<sub>ref</sub>)  to a module being exposed under realistic field conditions (E<sub>mod</sub>).